Sunday, December 05, 2021

Article Index


  • Ahammadsahib K.I., Hollingworth R.M., McGovern J.P., Hui Y.H. and McLaughlin J.L. (1993). Mode of action of bullatacin: a potent antitumor and pesticidal annonaceous acetogenin. Life Science: 53 (14):1113-1120.
  • Alali, F. Q., Liu, X. X. and McLaughlin, J. L. (1999). Annonaceous acetogenins: recent progress. Journal of Natural. Products. 62: 504-540.
  • Andrade, E., Zoghbi, M., Maia, J., Fabricius, H., and Marx, F. (2001). Chemical Characterization of the Fruit of Annona squamosa L. occurring in the Amazon. Journal of Food Composition and Analyses. 14(2): 227-232.Atique, A., Iqbal, M and Ghouse, K. (1985). Use of Annona squamosa and Piper nigrum against diabetes. Fitoterapia: 56, 3, 190-192.
  • Bartley, J.P. (1987). Volatile constituents of custard apple. Chromatographia, 23(2):129-131.
  • Beppu, F., Niwano, Y., Kyan, R., Yasura, K., Tamaki, M., Nishino, M., Midorikawa, Y. and Hamada, H. (2009). Hypolipidemic effects of ethanol extracts of Citrus depressa and Annona atemoya, typical plant foodstuffs in Okinawa, Japan on KKAy mice fed with moderately high fat diet. Food Science and Technology Research. 15(5): 553-556.
  • Bhakuni, D.S., Tewari, S. and Dhar, M.M. (1972). Aporphine alkaloids of Annona squamosa. Phytochemistry, 11(5):1819-1822.
  • Bonavia, D., Ochoa, C., Tovar S., and Palomino, R. (2004). Archaeological evidence of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) and guanabana (Annona muricata L.) in ancient Peru. Economic Botany. 58(4): 509-522.
  • Brand-Miller, J., Foster-Powell, F and Colaguira, S. (2003). The New Glucose Revolution. Publisher: Headline. ISBN: 9780733616440.
  • Chen, T., Wen-Ju Yang, Ning-Sing Shaw and Tzong-Shyan Lin. (2006). Antioxidant activity of fruits produced in Taiwan. Abstract, 27th International Horticultural Congress, Korea, 2006.
  • Chih, H. W., Chiu, H. F., Tang, K. S., Chang, F. R. and Wu, Y. C. (2001). Bullatacin, a potent anti-tumour Annonaceous acetogenin, inhibits proliferation of human hepatacarcinoma cell line 2.2.15 by apoptosis induction. Life Sciences, 69: 1321-1331.
  • Cuendet, M; Oteham, C., Moon, R. Keller, W. Peaden, P. Pezzuto, J. (2008). Dietary administration of Asimina triloba (Paw Paw) extract increases tumor latency in N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea-treated rats. Pharmaceutical Biology. 46(1&2): 3 - 7.
  • Ezzati, M., Lopez, A.D., Rodgers, A., Hoorn, S.V. and Murray, C.J. (2002). Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease. Lancet: 360 (93430):1347-1360.
  • Fang-Rong, C., Jien-Lin, C., Chih-Yuan, L., Hui-Fen, C., Ming-Juan, W., and Yang-Chang, W. (1999). Bioactive acetogenins from the seeds of Annona atemoya. Phytochemistry, 51: 883-889.
  • Franco, E. M. (2006). Antioxidants in beverages: a study. Retrieved on September 1, 2006 from
  • Gaziano, J., Hennekens, C., O'Donnell, C., Breslow, J. and Buring, J. (1997). Fasting triglycerides, high density lipoprotein and risk of myocardial infarction. Circulation: 96:2520-2525.
  • George, A.P., Broadley, R., and Nissen, R. (2006). Preliminary review of the health and medicinal benefits of Annona spp. Possible paths to commercialisation. A confidential report for the Australian Custard Apple Growers Association.
  • Gupta, R. K., Kesari, A. N., Watal, G., Murthy, P. S., Chandra, R. and Tandon, V. (2005a). Nutritional and hypoglycaemic effect of fruit pulp of Annona squamosa in normal healthy and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Annals of Nutritional Metabolism: 49, 407-413.
  • Gupta, Rajesh Kumar, Achyut Narayan Kesari, Geeta Watal, P.S. Murthy, Ramesh Chandra, Kapil Maithal and Vibha Tandon (2005b). Hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of leaves of Annona squamosa (L) in experimental animal. Current Science: 88, 8, 1244-1254.
  • Hole, R., Wakade, A., Juvekar, A., Nachankar, R. and Kulkarni, M. (2006). Protective effect of Annona reticulata L. fruits on isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats. International Congress, Phytopharm, St. Petersburg, Russia.
  • Idstein H, Bauer C. and Schreier, P. (1985). Volatile acids in tropical fruits: cherimoya (Annona cherimolia, Mill.), guava (Psidium guajava, L.), mango (Mangifera indica, L., var. Alphonso), papaya (Carica papaya, L.) Z Lebensm Unters Forsch.][Article in German]. 180(5):394-7.
  • Janick, J. and Paull, R. (2006). The Encyclopaedia of Fruit and Nuts. Publisher: CABI.
  • Kaleem, M., Asif, M., Ahmed, Q. U. and Bano, B. (2006). Anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of Annona squamosa extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Singapore Medical Journal, 47(8): 670-675.
  • Kaur, C. and Kapoor, H. (2005). Antioxidant activity of some fruits in Indian diet. Acta Horticulturae, 696.
  • Layne DR. Pawpaw. Accessed November 24, 2009.
  • Yong-Ju Liang, Xu Zhang, Chun-Ling Dai, Jian-Ye Zhang, Yan-Yan Yan, Mu-Sheng Zeng, Li-Meng Chen and Li-Wu Fu (2009). Bullatacin triggered ABCB1-overexpressing cell apoptosis via mitochondrial - dependent pathway. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Article ID 867123.
  • Li, N., Shi, Z., Tang, Y., Chen, J. and Li, X. (2008). Recent progress on the total synthesis of acetogenins from Annonaceae. Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry, 4, No 48.
  • McLaughlin, J. (2008). Paw paw and cancer: Annonaceous acetogenins from discovery to commercial products. Journal of Natural Products: 71:1311-1321.
  • McLaughlin, J. L., Benson G.B. and Forsythe J.W. (2010). A novel mechanism for the control of clinical cancer: Inhibition of the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) with a standardized extract of paw paw (Asiminoz triloba, Annonaceae). Accessed February 16, 2010.
  • McLaughlin, J.L. (2005). Pawpaw research ( -);
  • McLaughlin, J.L. (2006). Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) research:
  • Niwano, Y., Beppu, F., Shimada, T., Kyan, R., Yasura, K., Tamaki, M., Nishino, M., Midorikawa, Y. and Hamada, H. (2009). Extensive screening for plant foodstuffs in Okinawa, Japan with anti-obese activity on adipocytes in vitro. Plant Foods Human Nutrition, 64:6-10.
  • Noichinda, S., Bodhipadma, K., Wongs-Aree, C., Komkhuntod, R. and Sirisukchaitavorn, H. Differences in antioxidant properties among cultivated sugar apples (Annona spp.). Agricultural Science Journal, 40(3)(Suppl.): 265-269.
  • Oberlies N.H, Croy V.L, Harrison M.L. and McLaughlin, J.L. (1997). The Annonaceous acetogenin bullatacin is cytotoxic against multidrug-resistant human mammary adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer Letter. 115 (1):73-79.2.
  • Oberlies, N. H., Chang, C. J. and McLaughlin, J. L. (1997). Structure-activity relationships of diverse Annonaceous acetogenins against multi-drug resistant human mammary adenocarcinoma (MCF-7/Adr) cells. Journal Medical Chemistry, 40, 2102-2106.
  • Oberlies, N. H. et al. (1995). Tumour cell growth inhibition by several Annonaceous acetogenins in an in vitro disk diffusion assay. Cancer Letters, 96(1): 55-62.
  • Oberlies, N.H., F.Q. Alali, and J.L. McLaughlin, (1999). Annonaceous: thwarting ATP dependent resistance. In: New Trends and Methods in Natural Products Research, eds. I. Calis, T. Ersoz, and A.A. Basaran, Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Plant Originated Crude Drugs, May 20-22, 1998, The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey. Ankara, pp. 192-223.
  • Oberlies, N.H., V. L. Croy, M.H. Harrison, and J.L.McLaughlin, (1997). The Annonaceous acetogenin bullatacin is cytotoxic against multidrug resistant human mammary adenocarcinoma cells, Cancer Letters, 115, 173-179.
  • Leung, W. and Flores, M. (1961). Food composition tables for use in Latin America. Joint Research Project, Institute of Nutrition of Central America, Panama and Guatemala, and National Institute of Health, Maryland.
  • Pino, J., Marbot, R. and Fuentes, V. (2003). Characterization of volatiles in Bullock's heart (Annona reticulata L.) fruit cultivars from Cuba. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 51(13): 3836-3839.
  • Pinto, A.C., Cordeiro, M.C. de Andrade, S.R., Ferreira, F.R., de C. Fiegueiras, Alves, R.E. and Kinpara, D.J. (2005). Annona species. Fruit for the Future. International Centre for Underutilised Fruits, University of South Hampton, SO171BJ, UK.
  • Pomer, K., Lowe, J., Crabtree, S., and Keller, W. (2009). Identification of Annonaceous acetogenins in the ripe fruit of the North American pawpaw (Asimina triloba). Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 57:8339-8343.
  • Rabintossaporn, P., Saenthaweesuk, S., Thuppia, A., Ingkaninan, K. and Sireeratawong, S. (2009). Antihyperglycemic and histological effects on the pancreas of the aqueous leaves extract of Annona squamosa L. and diabetic rats. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 31(10):73-78.
  • Rajarathnam, S., Shashirekha, M. N., Vijayalakshmi, M. R., and Revathy, B. (2003a). A process for the preparation of dehydrated product from custard apple. Indian patent application no. 382/DEL/03.
  • Rajarathnam, S., Shashirekha, M. N., Vijayalakshmi, M. R., and Revathy , B. (2003b). A process for the preparation of nectar from custard apple.Indian patent application: no. 402/DEL/03.
  • Ratnayake S, Rupprecht J.K., Potter WM and McLaughlin J.L. (1992). Evaluation of various parts of the paw paw tree, Asimina triloba (Annonaceae), as commercial sources of the pesticidal annonaceous acetogenins. Journal of Economic Entomology,85 (6):2353-2356.
  • Rios, M., Castrejon, F., Robledo, N., Leon, I., Rojas, G. and Navarro, V. (2003). Chemical composition and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from Annona cherimola (Annonaceae). Revista de la Sociedad Quimica de Mexico, 47(2): 139-142.
  • Shashirekha, M, Baskarana, R., Raob, L. Munusamy R. Vijayalakshmia, and Rajarathnama, S. (2008). Influence of processing conditions on flavour compounds of custard apple (Annona squamosa L.). Food Science and Technology, 41: 236-243
  • Thompson, G.E. (2007). The health benefits of traditional Chinese plant medicines: weighing the scientific evidence. A report for the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation. Publication no. No 06/128. Australian Government.
  • Topno, K.K. (1997). Plants used by tribals of Chotanagpur against diabetes. Botanica: 47:99-101.
  • Wenkam, N. (1990). Foods of Hawaii and Pacific Basin. Fruit and fruit products. Raw, processed and prepared. Vol. 4, Composition. Research Extension Series 110. Hawaii Institute for Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources.
  • WHO (2006) Global strategy on, diet, physical activity and health
  • Wiart, C., Au, T.S., Mohd, Y., Hamimah, H. and Sulaiman, M. (2005). 16 ? hydroxy-(-) kauran-19-oic Acid: an antibacterial diterpene from sweet apple (Annona squamosa L. Annonaceous). International Journal of Pharmacology: 1 (3):296-298.
  • Wong, K., and Khoo, K. (1992). Volatile components of Malaysian Annona fruits. Flavour and Fragance Journal, 8 (1):5-10.
  • Wu, Y.C., Hung, F.R., Chang, M., Consetino, H.K., Wang, K and Lee, K.H. (1996). Identification of ent-16 beta, 17 -dihydroxykauran-19-oic acid as an anti-HIV principle and isolation of the new diterpenoids annosquamosin A and B from Annona squamosa. Journal of Natural Products, 59:635-637.
  • Wylie, S., Cook, D., Brophy, J. and Richter, K. (1987). Volatile flavour components of Annona atemoya (custard apple). Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 35:768-770.
  • Yong-Ju Liang, Xu Zhang, Chun-Ling Dai, Jian-Ye Zhang, Yan-Yan Yan, Mu-Sheng Zeng, Li-Ming Chen and Li-Wu Fu (2009). Bullatacin triggered ABCB1-overexpressing cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial dependent pathway. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology. Article ID 867123.
  • Yu, J.G., Luo, X.Z., Sun, L, Li, D.Y., Huang, W.H. and Liu C.Y. (2005). Chemical constituents from the seeds of Annona squamosa. Yao Xue Xue Bao, 40(2):153-8.
  • Zhao GX, Rieser MJ, Hui YH, et al. (1993). Biologically active acetogenins from stem bark of Asimina triloba. Phytochemistry ;33(5):1065-1073.3.


Information in this review is presented for educational purposes only and should not be viewed as a recommendation for treatment of medical conditions or use of products mentioned in the review.

The review provides an overall perspective on the findings of medicinal research for custard apples.  It is not an exhaustive treatise.  The aims of this review are to collate current evidence and to stimulate further research.

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